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Here, we propose to leverage and combine two transformative scientific developments to directly study life history in past human populations of the last 50,000 years: on one hand Palaeogenetics, that has deeply impacted archaeology and population genetics by opening a direct window into the genomic past, and on the other molecular Epigenetics, whose role in fundamental processes such as cellular differentiation and aging has already led to commercial applications for example in cancer medicine. Two recent breakthroughs provide the essential computational tools: first, prediction of methylation patterns from ancient DNA sequencing data, and second, prediction of life history traits such as maximum lifespan, gestational time, and age at sexual maturity from methylation patterns.

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